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Antique Farm Tractors Vintage farm tractors on rubber tires with various implements. Ford, John Deere, Oliver, McCormick and more.

Antique Farm Tractors

Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231


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Old 01-27-2017, 02:09:40 AM
Squatch253 Squatch253 is offline
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Default Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Hey everybody, I've got a unique old tractor that I'm working on that I'd like to share with you all on here. It's an old Minneapolis-Moline factory prototype test unit that had a role in the development of the Model 445 wheel tractor in the mid 1950's. This tractor has a long story behind it, which I'll try to tell in the shortest way possible. My involvement with this machine begins about 10 years ago, but to start the story I'll go all the way back to #X-231's beginning.


These old photos are all dated January, 1955 and were taken at M-M's workshop where a lot of the research and development happened. There is a good chance the tractor pictured is X-231, but it can't absolutely be verified because in the background of the first photo there appears to be another identical tractor to the one featured. But there stands a good chance that one of these machines is X-231.





There are actually a few recognizable features on this tractor that are similar to the then current production Model ZB, but also some that ended up on the later production 445. The radiator and grille, engine block, and drawbar all look to be ZB components, but the upper end of the 206 gas engine has been upgraded to the vertical overhead valve design, as well as a power steering equipped front steering housing, ampli-torque transmission, and a 3-point lift system on the back.





The 3-point lift system on this tractor really doesn't resemble anything that ended up making it to the production stage of the 445 line; it appears there is an overly complicated draft sensing linkage that runs from the lower lift arms up to the right side of the lift assembly, the rockshaft is much wider than the production 445 version, and the lower arms themselves look to have an I-beam style shape to them.





Not much is known about the time that X-231 spent with the M-M company, what or how much it did, or how many hours it logged, or what was changed on it while it was still there. But when Moline decided they no longer had any use for it an engineer that worked there named Ralph Jones was able to buy it from the company. Turns out that over the years he had been able to obtain quite a bit of prototype M-M equipment, and most of it made its way up to Kerrick, MN where it was used on his brother's farm just east of town. It is at this point that X-231's real working life began.

---------- Post added 01-27-2017 at 12:09:40 AM ---------- Previous post was 01-26-2017 at 11:35:59 PM ----------

X-231 was used extensively on the Jones farm over the next 25 or so years after it left the company, until sometime in the early 1980's when something in the rear end broke in a very big way, locking up the rear wheels and stalling the engine. By this point it was quite worn out, already had many broken parts and was deemed to not be worth fixing. So it was drug over to the fence line and left to sit, replaced by a more capable tractor.

It was around 1985 that my grandfather happened to be on the Jones farm doing some carpentry work, when he struck up a deal to buy a 445 crawler tractor they had there that they didn't use much anymore (turns out the crawler was also a prototype but nobody knew that or cared much at the time) and also the old wheel tractor X-231 that had been parked the couple years prior. He was really only interested in the crawler to use in the woods for his firewood business, but X-231 had a similar powertrain so it was thrown in "for parts" in case the crawler ever broke down. So with that, those two prototypes were hauled off the Jones farm and over to the other side of town.

X-231 in the condition that my grandfather found it -





Over the next couple of years my grandfather tried using the prototype 445 crawler in the woods but being an experimental unit, it had a weak steering clutch setup and didn't perform well. It was eventually parked too, replaced by a Caterpillar dozer, and also left to sit near X-231. Neither of these prototype M-M machines would move again until the late 1990's, when by chance my father and I ran into a Minneapolis-Moline collector from South Dakota who was able to identify the two oddball M-M units we had sitting back at home. Shortly after that meeting, we got both of the prototypes moved and started the restoration process on the crawler, serial #X-253. I learned that it was one of the prototypes to the production Model 2-Star crawler, of which only 51 production 2-Star's were ever built. I didn't finish #X-253's restoration until 2006.

Video link to #X-253 -

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbGR1QgOem4


It was then, in 2006, that we first directed our attention to X-231, and quickly found out how big of a job it was going to be to get it brought back to life as well.
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Old 01-27-2017, 02:24:59 AM
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Photo Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

My computer is acting up so I'm still waiting for pictures to load and can't see if x-231 is done or still mid/restoration, but figured I'd ask anyway if there would be any chance or getting it and/or the crawler down to Freeport IL the first weekend in August ?

The Stephenson County Antique Engine Club is featuring Twin City, Minneapolis, Moline tractors & Equipment at our 48th Annual Threshing Show which will also be the 35 year Reunion for the "Prairie Gold Rush" club which had their first show at our show in 1982

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Old 01-27-2017, 02:30:49 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

I'm in the middle of watching your crawler video now. . .

That is a BEAUTIFUL Machine !

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Old 01-27-2017, 02:40:46 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

We began taking stock of the tractor's condition, noting the obvious problem areas to try to decide how best to proceed. The engine turned over but did not have much compression, the rear end housing had a big crack on the bottom that nearly ran the entire length of it, and much of the sheet metal was in poor condition. Probably the biggest let-down of all was when we realized the entire original 3-point lift system had been replaced at some point with a much later style Tel-o-Flow unit that appeared to be from the Jet-Star tractor era. Likely the original system either didn't work well or broke, and with no replacement parts was discarded entirely.





Still, many of the unique features of this tractor remained. It has an interesting steering column housing that when inspected closely shows that it was hand fabricated out of several contoured pieces of steel and welded together. Also the entire instrument panel was still intact, featuring two temperature gauges since each cylinder head had a separate sending unit.





After looking the whole thing over we decided there was just too much wrong with the machine to try to get it running, so we moved straight into complete tear-down mode.

Hood removed, it became obvious that both cylinder heads had been replaced since they no longer carried the experimental "10X" casting number prefix that the rest of the engine had, plus their patina didn't match everything around them.





We did find a ZB style fan shroud, but with a 445 style water pump and fan behind it.

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Old 01-27-2017, 02:52:57 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

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Originally Posted by OTTO-Sawyer View Post
My computer is acting up so I'm still waiting for pictures to load and can't see if x-231 is done or still mid/restoration, but figured I'd ask anyway if there would be any chance or getting it and/or the crawler down to Freeport IL the first weekend in August ?
OTTO-Sawyer, thank you for the invitation but unfortunately X-231 is about as far from finished as one could possibly get at the present time, right now I'm still recounting it's back story to get things to where it stands now. But thank you for the compliment on the crawler! I just have one last pic to post tonight, then I gotta give my computer a rest too.


Picking up where I left off, we found one last insult - another broken casting! It looked like the front steering housing cracked out inside the snap ring groove around the end plug for the steering rack, causing the entire outer ring to detach from the main casting.





After the above pictures were taken we finished stripping X-231 down to a bare chassis and prepared to sandblast what was left, mostly just to remove the remaining grease and rust so we could better see what was left to work with. But that'll be "Part 2" to this story, which I'll get put up tomorrow and finally have the story up to the point where things stand now...
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Old 01-27-2017, 03:22:04 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Still no pictures coming through on my end, but after finishing the crawler video I watched your two videos on X-231 so YES you do have some work ahead of you yet.

Real Interesting seeing the differences between it and the production models, especially things like the cam bearings, oil lines, and the reinforcing bars welded inside the block for the front mounts.

Good to see you documenting everything the way you are.

If I miss any updates on here, I subscribed to your YouTube channel so I can catch them there.

Also glad to see you left the old weld scars on the back of the crawler. . . They are Indeed part of its history.

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Old 01-27-2017, 11:14:30 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Wow...interesting project! Does Jensen Tractor have any parts or are they "one off" pieces? I cut pulpwood a few miles west of Kerrick.

It been awhile since I thought about those little towns on Hwy 23 NE of Askov.
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Old 01-27-2017, 11:43:57 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

This going to fun to watch
Thanks Wayne
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Old 01-27-2017, 07:07:31 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Awesome story! Thanks for sharing. I remember one in antique power magazine several years ago that I think was called an "IT" It looked very funny with the headlight mounts running the length of the hood. It seems like quite a few experimental MM tractors have survived. Some companies made sure every ex tractor was destroyed but MM seemed to be a little looser with this policy!!
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Old 01-27-2017, 08:50:37 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Just saw your videos on YouTube. Glad to see there is a Stak thread keep up the good work and keep up the videos!
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Old 01-27-2017, 11:28:47 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

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Originally Posted by Mark Schneider View Post
Wow...interesting project! Does Jensen Tractor have any parts or are they "one off" pieces? I cut pulpwood a few miles west of Kerrick.

It been awhile since I thought about those little towns on Hwy 23 NE of Askov.
Well Mark, you just about made me fall out of my chair. NOBODY I talk to has ever heard of Kerrick, with its thriving population of about 63 people and all, lol. I'm well familiar with Askov too, as I worked there everyday for about 15 years. Unfortunately most of the badly broken pieces on this tractor are the one-off "10X" castings, the rest of what I've found in it that's not experimental are mostly ZB parts so at least they'd be easy to replace if need be.

---------- Post added at 09:28:47 PM ---------- Previous post was at 09:22:29 PM ----------

Here's a few more pics to pick up where I left off in the story, tractor stripped down to the main chassis and sandblasted to see what was underneath. Since it was going to be stripped down to bare castings anyway we didn't worry about any sand that might have found its way to the inside.







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Old 01-27-2017, 11:48:01 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Quite the sight around the drawbar, some of the bracket bolts were missing completely while others were loose but all of the threaded holes in the rear case were in poor condition. And yeah, the weld.




After these pictures were taken we finished tearing the tractor down and really began to worry about the things we found wrong. I do have a few more old pictures of that but first I want to link in the "Part 1" video I made for X-231 a couple of weeks ago. I'm trying to keep a video log of this tractor to supplement the threads I have running on it, this first video pretty much repeats everything I've posted here so far until you get to the last few minutes, which shows the exact condition the tractor was in after it had sat packed away in the back of the shed until just recently.


Here's the video link, I can't seem to make the YouTube tags work on this board to get the full window to appear - has anyone else had trouble with that?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFSeciJlnDU
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Old 01-28-2017, 04:16:33 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Just put the code after the equals sign in between the YouTube brackets

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFSeciJlnDU < that bit.

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Old 01-28-2017, 12:44:49 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Here are the last few old pictures I have showing the final bit of work that was done to this tractor before the project was put on the back-burner for good up until we got it dug back out a few weeks ago.

The following summer (2007) after we had X-231 sandblasted we got serious about seeing what it would take to fix the broken rear end casting. We remembered the old story the Jones family had told us about how one day something went "bang" in the rear end and had completely locked the wheels up, causing them to retire the tractor permanently. When we pulled the top cover off the housing we immediately saw that the differential carrier was also cracked, and lots of black sludge covering everything. So we really didn't have high hopes of finding an easy fix waiting for us in there.





After a full disassembly we discovered how all the rear end damage happened. The rear PTO live power over-center clutch sits high in the rear end housing, up between the rear axle bull gears, just like a production 445 tractor. One of the over-center clutch dogs had come loose and ended up being caught under a bull gear and locked up the drivetrain. In the process it broke the bottom of the rear end housing, caused the differential carrier to explode into 5 pieces, and put a 1/16 twist on the drive pinion shaft which also doubles as the bottom shaft in the transmission. We were barely able to remove the transmission gears from that lower shaft because of the twist.

Broken differential carrier from the rear end, all "10X" pieces.





Marking out the cracks in the bottom of the main housing, it nearly caused an entire chunk to break out. Also quite a bit of damage caused by the loose drawbar brackets.

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Old 01-28-2017, 01:13:23 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

We knew we didn't have the resources to attempt a quality repair on that broken rear end housing ourselves, and the fact that it was also one of the experimental "10X" pieces made us determined not to do anything to it that may cause further damage. So we did a lot of calling around and finally found a place in Nevada, Iowa that told us they could fix it, and were equipped to do a proper pre-heat and post-heat to limit the chances of making the damage worse in the process. They were also the ONLY place that would even consider taking the job, since every other place we contacted didn't want to risk further damaging an irreplaceable casting.

So we hauled the broken housing down to Iowa in the summer of '07 and brought it back home, fully repaired, a couple weeks later.








They also repaired some cracking around the bearing bore where the live power shaft mounts high in the rear of the housing, the casting was incredibly thin in this area to begin with and that's likely what contributed to that failure.



---------- Post added at 11:09:26 AM ---------- Previous post was at 11:01:11 AM ----------

That's it for the old pictures, having the rear housing repaired was the last thing that was really done to X-231 until just recently when we finally decided to get back to this project.

I've started rebuilding X-231's engine first, here's the "Part 2" video I made of that. This one's mostly for the documentation of the prototype features of its engine, comparisons of it to the earlier ZB tractors, as well as to the eventual production 445. Lots of detail stuff here, but I thought it was important to document it all while I had the opportunity.



---------- Post added at 11:13:23 AM ---------- Previous post was at 11:09:26 AM ----------

Dang it, still having trouble with the YouTube window. Second try -

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Old 01-28-2017, 11:24:27 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Hi Toby,
great to see you deeply involved in other than Cats.
Maybe try cleaning the weld porosity with brake cleaner or such followed by compressed air several times until the porosity comes clear of oil residue --take usual flammable products and working with compressed air precautions.
Then get after it with some Loctite or other porous casting or hydraulic fitting wicking fluids.
Have seen this stuff do good work on porous castings and porous weld repairs on castings.

There used to be casting porosity sealer paints available for sealing engine, transmission etc. castings etc. There is likely two pack stuff available these days.

Cheers and keep up the good work,
Eddie B.
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Old 01-28-2017, 11:38:05 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Thanks edb, I'll look into your suggestions to see if I can get those little pinholes plugged up. I have to admit I've really been neglecting the other forums these last couple weeks trying to get this project back online again!
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Old 01-29-2017, 12:58:26 AM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

No worries Toby, a person can only do so much at one time.
"Variety is the spice of life" my Dad used to say.
Just make sure you enjoy what you are doing.
Cheers,
Eddie B.
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Old 01-30-2017, 02:27:38 PM
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Default Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Video #3, main engine parts ready for the machine shop.

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Old 02-02-2017, 05:38:55 PM
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Thumbs up Re: Minneapolis-Moline Prototype 445 Tractor #X-231

Been checking back daily and low-and-behold, Today the pictures finally opened for me.

Many of them were already shown in your videos, but a few weren't.

Nice to have the hard copies to look at and study.

Real Nice Looking Repair on that bottom casting in post #15.

Looking forward to seeing the rest of the pictures as this thread continues.

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