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Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log


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  #201  
Old 05-05-2016, 07:59:21 PM
Kevin O. Pulver Kevin O. Pulver is offline
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Default Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

Always nice to see your updates... feels like seeing an old family member again! I had to Google fiddleheads I've never heard of those things or eating them. I suppose you have a lot of wild blueberries in that area too? I may have told you but my father-in-law was from Rumford. My wife was a Michaud. I've never been out that way but would love to see it.
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  #202  
Old 05-08-2016, 08:52:44 AM
tharper tharper is offline
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Thank you Kevin! Up here where we are there aren't that many Blueberries - just lots of potatoes and broccoli. (which the moose love). However, if you
travel downeast to Washington and Hancock county that's a different story - blueberries and blueberries!

Well we had our pouring session. What a great day! Peter from Odd Duck Foundry came to the school as promised. The timing worked out well since I needed a new casting and we are just starting a section on
Manufacturing Engineering which happens to include Foundry work. Plus it goes hand-in-hand with our work with rapid prototyping and 3D printing technology.

Peter provided great explanations for each step and provided my students opportunities to get their hands dirty. Many asked and begged to stay even through they had to go to other classes. One student asked if he could stay even though it meant skipping a math test. when I e-mailed his instructor to explain where his missing student was (expecting some grief) to our surprise he showed up with the whole class to watch!

In the end we made three pours (2 bronze, 1 brass) - the first cold shut on us - not hot enough. During the second pour the top half of the mold lifted. The third and final pour we had to cut short because the zinc in the brass was off-gassing badly and we were running short on time so that had a cold shut as well.

However, again, the students loved it and we all had a great time. The patterns and core boxes worked great and now I have an excuse to visit Peter on his home turf and get these casting done.

Even though the pour shown below was a failure, due to the bronze (SAE 660) not being hot enough, it provides a great example of how a core works. The core is nothing more than sand mixed with a binder. In this case sodium silicate (water glass). Once mixed, its packed into the core box which serves as a mold to shape the sand. After removal from the core box its cured. Fully cured it has the consistency of a hard cookie. If the core has to be formed in several pieces they can be glued together.

Here you can see how the bronze as formed around the core. If this pour had gone well once the casting is cool the core would have been broken-up and removed leaving a correct size and positioned cavity in the casting.



Here you can see the bottom of the core - its hard to see but it actually projects about 3/8" beyond the face of the casting. When placed in the flask this projection sat in an impression (core print) left by the pattern that allows the core to be precisely aligned.



Best regards,

Terry
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  #203  
Old 10-23-2016, 09:21:58 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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It has been awhile since I last gave you folks an up-date. Not a lot of progress - as usual life get in the way. Up here, tucked tight against the Canadian border in the far north east, the growing season and good weather to get outside work done is brief and fleeting.

I did however get another pattern complete - this one is for the oil filler cap. As with many parts to this beast the oil filler tube had been smashed and taken away many, many decades ago. Thankfully Don had a NOS filler tube but there was no cap to go with it.

No problem! A trip to Don's and a quick impression using some of my daughters playdough gave me all the info I needed. Using Inventor Professional I developed a 3D model of the finished part and the pattern.



Once the 3D printer finished its work it was off to the shop for finishing and painting.

This piece will be cast from aluminum. One thing to note is like all patterns its important to add material for machining allowance. Thus since this piece will be faced, turned and threaded the rough casting will be slightly larger in diameter (+1/16") and the top will be thicker to allow for material to be removed during those operations. On the original part the stem is hollow. To make life easier as cast my piece will be solid and will be bored out on the lathe rather than use a core.

Earlier this month I had, once again, the privilege of being on the Lombard crew at the Maine Forest & Logging Museum during their living history day. The highlight of my day was being able to take my daughter for a ride. In the photo below she is standing in the gangway working the whistle while I
concentrate on keeping the beast moving.



As she pointed out - if you can parallel park this beast you can parallel park anything!


One noted guest was my friend Jean Lacroix who along with his wife and brother drove down from Quebec to attend this event. Jean's Grandfather was Edouard "King" Lacroix. It was Lacroix who last owned and operated this particular steamer in 1925 when it was abandoned near Knowles Brook in the upper St. John River region. It was also Lacroix who owned the Lombard tractor that my big engine came out of.

Best regards,

Terry

---------- Post added at 09:21:58 PM ---------- Previous post was at 09:06:00 PM ----------

Time does indeed fly! It seems just a short while ago I was waiting impatiently for Summer now Fall is upon us.

Recently I was contacted by another Wisconsin T-Head owner. The particular engine he is working with is a Wisconsin model "M"
four cylinder with 5-3/4" bore and 7" stroke and was part of the remains of a fire truck. At first we thought it was identical to mine - minus two cylinders. However we quickly found out it was not. It was part of an extensive line of four and six cylinder T-head motors offered by Wisconsin at least through 1919.

This line-up included the following:
QM (3-1/4X5) 4 cylinder

CM (3 3/4X5) 4 cylinder

EM (4x5) 4 cylinder

BM (4 1/4x5) 4 cylinder

AM (4 3/4x5 1/2) 4 cylinder

FM (4 1/4x5) 6 cylinder

JM (5.1x5 1/2) 4 cylinder

GM (4 3/4x5 1/2) 6 cylinder

DM (5 1/4x7) 4 cylinder

LM (5.1x5 1/2) 6 cylinder

MM (5 3/4x7) 4 cylinder

KM (5 1/4x7) 6 cylinder

PM (5 3/4x7) 6 cylinder



Note that all of these include an "M" suffix which means from the factory they were setup for marine applications which was a huge market for Wisconsin. Engines destined for trucks etc. had no suffix though my
engine has a "T" suffix to denote that it was intended for tractor applications. Interestingly the difference between a "P" and a "PT" is that the "PT" has an external oil pump while the "P" has an internal pump and a distributor was fitted.

That may sound like a minor difference but it required a different crankcase. What's even more remarkable is that
by 1918 Wisconsin was offering an extensive lineup of mono-block engines. That's a lot of variations for a
bespoken engine manufacturer!

To confuse it more, as I mentioned earlier all the above listed engines were ancestors to mine and while they hold some similarity they are different in a number of ways. Crank diameter (2-3/8" v 2-5/8") lubrication system etc. To add to this all the original factory drawings I have are dated 1921 which means my beast was a late arrival on the T-head scene. In fact in the few publications I can find its the only T-head advertised along side Wisconsin's mono-blocks.

Which begs the question why would they offer a T-head design at a time when they were already marketing a successful line of mono-block engines and T-heads were considered a dying breed?

By 1929 they did indeed replace the model "P" and "PT" with the massive "D" series overhead valve engines.

Best regards,

Terry
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  #204  
Old 05-26-2017, 06:45:40 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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It feels good to be moving forward once again! This past Saturday at the Maine Forest History & Logging Museum we had our first Lombard run of the season. I even though I had almost a 3 hour ride I still got there before Herb who is always the first one there. I had been up since 3am and had the "Krunk" car (2002 Honda Civic Si)cranking down the highway by 4 am. I have been waiting for this run all winter and was so excited I simply didn't sleep Friday night.

I had the camshafts from the big Wisconsin along for the ride. With the passenger seat full forward the crate just fit. While at the museum Paul Breton used them to verify that the cam gears on his set for his engine were oriented correctly. Before he acquired the Lombard he is currently working on it had been a high school shop project. Using my cams as a go-by, he determined that the marks (non-factory) on one of his cams were off by quite a lot. As an additional perk Paul got some throttle time on our steamer.(He is currently working to piece one of those together as well).

I also met up with Peter Grant my foundry guy. A warm greeting and a quick exchange of patterns and core boxes from one car to the other and it was off to help prep the Lombard for the days adventure. We ran it out of the shop using the air compressor than the fun began. My usual job is making sure the beast is greased and oiled. We usually start the fire at 8:00 and have it ready to roll at 1:30. What a pleasure to run this machine. She ran like clock-work all day. I should also say what an honor to work with such wonderful people - Chuck, Herb, Lew, Noah, Shawn and Paul.




At the throttle with Lew and Chuck steering


After the run Paul and I zipped down to Peter's to drop off some casting material and discuss casting with him.
Over the past couple of days he has cast a set of wire tube brackets, several oil pump drive gear boxes and a
couple of oil filler caps for Paul and I as well as one of the crosshead shoes for his Lombard project. One of the housings ended up with a flat spot were it didn't fill out but... I will use that one to test my setups.





Now I have some castings to work with!

Best regards,

Terry
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  #205  
Old 06-06-2017, 07:18:06 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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Tonight I finished up the patterns for the valve covers for the Wisconsin Model "A" engine in Bob's 1917 FWD. This has been a little project for my Drafting & Engineering Technology students and I. Bob provided one of the cover halves to use as a go-by. We modeled it in 3D using Inventor Professional. Then we used Fusion 360 to generate the tool paths and post process to our Tormach PCNC 440 which milled out the patterns and core boxes.

Tonight It felt good to do some simple finishing work which always brings closure on a project and a whole lot of satisfaction. This was kind of the theme for the day. Today I had to say goodbye to my graduating students - some whom I had in my class for two or three years. Its always a bittersweet moment and it seemed more so this year. We were doing well until one young lady puddled-up then it ran like a fever through the whole class. I did the only thing I could think of... we went over to the neighboring elementary school (with permission) and they played on the playground. Those few moments swinging on the swings and rolling down the hill re-centered them and we made it through the day. What an exceptional group of students! Two will be going to college for mechanical engineering, one for automotive restoration at McPherson and another has a full boat scholarship for Chemical Engineering.

Anyway... here is the finished pattern and core-box. I just need to add some cross pieces to the bottom of the core boxes.



Best regards,

Terry
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Old 12-21-2017, 06:57:43 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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My time flies!

Here we are close to the end of another year and the big beast still isn't running! But that's all my fault. When school is in there just isn't enough time in the day and this summer we had a lot going on family wise.

That's the way it goes! My plan for the coming year is to pour the babbitt for the Mains and the connecting rods. I priced out having this done by a professional shop and while they are no doubt a top notch facility and do incredible work its just not affordable. So... after discussions with my friend Joe I am convinced I can do it myself. The hardest part will be the babbitt tips on the thick shims. I am thinking I can make a jig and mold to hold the shim and then cast these. When line bored they will be cut to match the finished bearing dia.

In the photo below you can see what I am talking about.



Below is one of the main bearing inserts - this shows clearly why they need to be replaced.



While I have been mulling over this I have been working on some other projects - one is reverse engineering a Milbrath Magneto coupling for a collector. This was proprietary design developed by Arthur Milbrath who was also one of the founding partners of Wisconsin Motor Manufacturing. Currently I am working on finishing-up the patterns







Another project was 3D scanning the "impossible" part. This is the last water fitting for the big T-head I need to develop a set of patterns for. My students named it the impossible part. They have looked at it as a challenge to their 3D modeling abilities. Alas... all have failed - the part is simply to organic and with the two 90 degree bends and tapper and radius it simply doesn't adhere to the laws of geometry.

A few weeks ago I took a professional development day and traveled to Orono for a meeting. Since I was just upstairs I took the original (loaned by Don) down to the Advanced Manufacturing Facility at the University of Maine at Orono. John Belding and Noah had graciously offered to scan it for me. Now that its scanned I can generate the pattern and core box and either CNC or 3D print them.



Best regards,

Terry

---------- Post added at 05:57:43 PM ---------- Previous post was at 05:41:25 PM ----------

Oh... and since I was only a few miles away Herb, Lew and I went over to the museum to "check if the battery was charged in the Lombard." It was a lame excuse but we could justify it!



We have a bit of work to do to the beast - it was running rather rough at the end (you can here it popping etc. in the video) which I think is water in the fuel - large fuel tank + little fuel over a lengthy period of time = lots of moist air = phase separation = water laden ethanol dropping to the bottom of the tank. Also the tracks need adjusting and we want to remove the crazy foot throttle and change it back to the steering column mounted lever and quadrant. But... I simply love this beast!

I think I need to take more professional development days!
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  #207  
Old 07-03-2018, 11:31:46 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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Photo Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

Over the past few weeks I have been working on the lower water manifold. Of all the parts and assemblies I have had to fabricate this one by far has been the most challenging - which is why I have saved it for last.

Awhile back I had fabricated some of the patterns and core boxes for the lower water manifold fittings. As it turns out I have to do them all over again! They were OK but not quite right. Fortunately my friend Paul is also restoring an identical motor. A number of years ago he had borrowed many of the fittings off the Lombard at the Maine State Museum and pulled rubber molds from them. Pulling measurements from those as well as the one well used and abused original fitting I have we were able to nail down the dimensions and geometry.

As usual I developed a 3D model of each components and a complete set of shop drawings. Next I will 3D print a mock-up of the front fitting to see how everything lines-up with the blocks and the water pump. The front fitting is the most critical. Wisconsin used a slip connection and gland nut to connect to a extension pipe coming off of the water pump. If the vertical offset and the horizontal offsets are not correct it won't line-up.

Interestingly I found my first example of shoddy workmanship on this beast. The 1-1/4" OD pipe runs clear thru the center fitting. On the original, after it was brazed in place some one stick a punch down through the hole in the flange and simple smacked a ragged hole in the wall of the pipe - so much for carefully calculating the flow rate of coolant!

Anyway, here is the finished 3D model. Once the fit is confirmed with the 3D printed mock-up then I will 3D model the patterns and core boxes and use a combination of 3D printing and the CNC mill and some manual work to fabricate them. Progress right?


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  #208  
Old 07-05-2018, 02:41:49 PM
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John Hamilton John Hamilton is offline
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Default Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

This has been one of the best series EVER. Thank you.
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  #209  
Old 07-06-2018, 10:43:40 AM
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Default Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

Are you going to melt down your " mistakes " for material to make this one ?
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Old 07-06-2018, 04:54:47 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by gootsch View Post
Are you going to melt down your " mistakes " for material to make this one ?
Yup! it all goes back in the pot!


On another note... Yesterday I had to take a trip downstate. Deciding to kill two birds with one stone I stopped by to visit my friend Paul to checkout his Lombard steam log hauler project and other goodies.

Among other things here we have a Sterling Model "F" engine sitting in the remains of a Lombard chassis.



Introduced in 1916 Sterling offered the model "F" is a six cylinder T-Head (5-1/2x6-3/4") which was fairly advanced for the day - a dual ignition system using a Berling Magneto and Atwater-Kent distributor to spark its dual plug setup. It also had a counter balanced crankshaft and full pressure lubrication (3-15 psi was considered good)

At 1,400 RPM this 962 cid beast could crank-out 148 hp. Lombard offered Sterling engines in their 10 ton tractor from 1916 to 1921. Though they were most popular as a marine engine I know of only two survivors - this one and one that is running condition. Both owned by Paul.

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Old 07-10-2018, 05:13:36 PM
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With the design of the lower water manifold finalized and the fittings modeled in 3D I can move forward with the patterns and core boxes. The first time I made these patterns I did it all by hand and while I hate the idea of having to re-do work this time it will be a lot easier since the technology I have available has progress substantially beyond my old Southbend Lathe.

One thought I had while working on this is how many people forget or do not realize the tremendous amount of up-front work and time needed before you can push the "go" button on the 3D printer or CNC machine. Its this "behind the scenes" work which isn't readily visible that eats up the time and racks up the cost. While you will save man hours for the actual fabrication this not-so-obvious work can negate any time or cost savings unless your talking a sizable run of the same part.

Its sort of like when I worked in architectural design. You would hand the client two or three drawings and they would freak out over paying the fee - having no clue the time and effort it took to create those drawings or the technical skills and professional knowledge that went into them. $5,000.00 for flooring? No problem.... $5,000.00 for the drawing of the home the flooring is going into.... nope!

Anyway... 3D modeling (revising and revising), developing tool paths and processing to G-code are all part of those costs many people do not think about - all they see is a small finished widget that cost a lot of cash.

Fortunately for me I am in this for fun. I don't keep track of my time because it would probably scare me and deflate the big balloon of joy I have doing this stuff.

So... onto the patterns. For the lower water manifold front fitting I need a five piece pattern. Because of the angle of the neck and the flange the pattern needs to be in several pieces which can be easily pulled from the mold without undercuts. Again because of the angle we also need to have a follower. The follower is the big block (see image below) that the top half of the pattern is temporarily attached too. This hold the pattern in the correct orientation to the face of the mold and establishes the part line.



Once the first half of the mold is rammed-up and flipped the follower is removed and the other pieces of the pattern are placed. Here you can see the four parts of the actual pattern and how they fit together. Dowels provide positive alignment.



Once the other halve of the mold is rammed-up the pattern is removed and its time to place the cores. The cores made out of core sand form the inner cavity and passages of the finished casting. Here is the pattern with the complete core imposed so you can see the relationship:



Here are the actual core boxes with again a complete core imposed. In reality each half of the core will be formed separate than glued together.



So.... just for this one fitting I have to fabricate a pattern made-up of five pieces and two core boxes. Now that the 3D models are complete I can send them on to the 3D printer. Any parts I want to CNC I will use need to import them into Fusion, create the tool paths and post-process to Path Pilot before I can hit that "Cycle" button!

Best regards,

Terry
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Old 07-11-2018, 12:15:53 AM
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And... another one well on its way. This one will be for the Lower Water Manifold rear fitting. (formally known as the "impossible part").

This one took a bit of head scratching. I set the part line along the center of the sweeping curve. However, for the flange to pull cleanly I had to rotate the part line midway up the neck. In this case not only does the follower hold the pattern in the correct orientation but it also allows us to easily change the orientation of the part line and hold all those pieces in the correct position.

Its hard to tell in the renderings but all the vertical sides of backer have to have draft just like the pattern.





Next, its onto the core boxes for this one. During casting day, forming the cores for all these fittings will require a little special help. More on that later!

Best regards,

Terry
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Old 07-15-2018, 08:21:02 PM
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One of the problems I had to wrap my head around while working on these patterns and core boxes was how to
support a core that has no flat face? What I mean is when we cast the parts for the intake manifold and upper water
manifolds each core half had a nice flat face at the part line so they could be simply dumped onto a flat plate for curing.
There where no curved surfaces that needed support during the curing process.

The cores for the lower water manifold fittings are curved all over the place!Here is a rendering of one of the
core boxes - I have shown the core in place as if its just been molded. In reality the
core would be in two halves that will be glued together after they are cured.



You can clearly see how once the core is removed from the box it needs support to keeps its shape during the curing process.
Now.... yes, depending upon the binder used in the core sand you can cure them while they are in the box. But what if you can't what if you need to bake the cores to cure them.

Here is one method:



First (Stage 1) the core box is set on a flat plate and filled. After the core box is filled and the top is struck-off
clean a temporary wood frame is attached to the box. This is filled with green sand, struck-off and a flat plate laid on top.

Next, (Stage 2) the whole thing is turned upside down, the plate is removed along with the core box and frame.

Now your left with a nice curvy core that is completely supported and ready to bake or cure.
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Old 07-17-2018, 03:10:08 PM
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Success! The front fitting for the lower water manifold has been challenging to say the least. Because they used a rigid connection (slip fit pipe and gland nut) between the fitting and water pump the angle and offsets are critical.

To test it I 3D printed a mock-up of the fitting and the flanged pipe that connects to the water pump. I didn't bother with the gland nut since that doesn't affect the fit. The print is a little messed-up at the top of the bend since I forgot to turn on supports.

It all fits perfect!







Now with everything modeled and knowing that it will all work, I can move onto fabricating the actual patterns and core boxes.

Best regards,

Terry
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Old 07-17-2018, 04:04:04 PM
Dale Russell Dale Russell is offline
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Default Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

Don't you just love a good challenge. Good luck with the core boxes!
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Old 07-17-2018, 04:36:02 PM
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Don't you just love a good challenge. Good luck with the core boxes!
Yup! (LOL) Its all about learning! Once you learn a new skill it can never be taken away!
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Old 09-10-2018, 08:21:21 PM
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Today we finished 3D printing the patterns and core boxes for the lower water manifold rear fitting (part no. A27A). The photo below shows them in the raw just out of the printer. They will still need to be post processed - imperfections filled, sanded, primed, wet sanded and then the gloss top coat.

You can see in the photo the rough areas were the temporary supports were attached. Supports allow you to print over hanging features than they are
simply broken away and the areas cleaned-up.



I cannot say it's a fast process.... one part took over 57 hours to print but remember that once the setup was done I simply pushed the button and let
it work away and I could focus on other things. The other thing to remember is that in the 3D printing world quality = time. If you want a high quality print than the printing process is going to take awhile.

Its really remarkable how this technology is evolving. Its sort of like when Texas Instruments came out with the first hand-held calculator - they cost several hundred dollars - now I can go to the store and buy a calculator with all the same functions for a few bucks. Same with 2D printing. I used our new Creality CR-10 to print these parts. Its currently available for less than $1,000.00 and while it won't equal the quality of a megabucks commercial setup it does a really good job.

Now onto the patterns for the front fitting!

Best regards,

Terry
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Old 09-26-2018, 02:38:27 PM
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When I visited Don last weekend he gave me a new pot for the Pharo governor for the big Wisconsin. The original was smashed beyond salvage. Apparently the shaft has seized and that in turn ripped the casting to pieces. Maybe that's why the particular Lombard Log Hauler that this beast came out of was abandoned in the shed? Anyway, today I started doing some careful dissecting just as Mr. Lord taught me way back in biology.

The Pharo governor is an interesting device. The only time I have come across the handful of Wisconsin T-heads like mine. Inside the pot or lower casting is a impeller. This is driven by a spiral bevel gear off an extension to the magneto drive shaft.

The pot is filled with oil via a oil line to the oil gallery in the crankcase. As the impeller spins the pressure of the oil on the lower face increases which forces the impeller upwards. When the impeller moves up far enough a hollow rod which also serves as a guide actuates a lever in the upper casting. This in turn rotates a metal stud connected to the end of a spring with another stud attached to the opposite end. The spring and studs are enclosed in a tubular housing that extends from the upper governor casting to a throttle body attached between the carb and the intake manifold. As the spring and studs rotate it actuates a throttle valve which controls the speed of the engine. All pretty neat and hard to explain!

Anyway, her is what I found:

Here you can see the broken casting as well as the impeller with part of the broken casting and the gear still attached.


Here is the new pot as well as a good view of the impeller. The shaft and gear are in the background. I will have to fabricate a new shaft and of course clean up the casting but otherwise it will work! The steel riveted to the bronze impeller is pretty rusty but I think I can salvage that as well.



Best regards,

Terry
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Old 09-26-2018, 05:02:17 PM
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John Hamilton John Hamilton is offline
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Default Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

This has been a wonderful trip. Someday I know we will see it run. Then will you build a T-head Mercer body for it? Thank you and keep it coming.
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Old 09-26-2018, 10:47:09 PM
tharper tharper is offline
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Photo Re: Wisconsin T-Head Restoration Log

Thanks John for the kind words! We are getting closer all the time to having a complete running engine.

As I mentioned previously last weekend Paul and Herb and I went on a "Rust" hunting trip. Our first stop was Don's and his Wisconsin engine parts department.

To say we were like kids in a candy store would be an understatement! Between Lombard stuff and Wisconsin engine stuff it was sensory overload!





Here I am with not one but two! Wisconsin engines sitting in front of me! In the foreground you can see our growing pile of treasures. Some steam Lombard some Wisconsin engine!


Don & Cheryl are amazing hosts. What could top a busy day rummaging around in rusty stuff than Cheryl's fantastic bear meat stew?



Life doesn't get any better than this! Rusty stuff and good friends!

Best regards,

Terry
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